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It explains mental processes as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which eventually bring about learning in an individual (Aliakbari,Parvin,Heidari,&Haghani, 2015, Abstract). Madeleine Leininger was an inspiration for nurses everywhere. In 1950, she received her B.S. The four fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing theory were advanced in 1978 by Barbara A. Carper, R.N., Ed.D., Associate Professor and Chairman of the Division of Medical Surgical Nursing of the College of Nursing at Texas Women's University in Dallas. ... an uncommonly low number in an era before germ theory was understood. It could be said that nursing is as old as mankind since people have always needed nursing care when ill or wounded. The word nurse is derived from the Anglo-French nurice and the Latin nutrica, both of which mean nourish.This is exactly what nurses have always done. Her work was instrumental for developing modern nursing practice, and from her first shift, she worked to ensure patients in her care had what they needed to get healthy. Nursing is now in the era of theory utilization—nurses using philosophies, models, and theories for theory-based nursing practice. This article discusses the concept of evidence-based practice from a historical perspective as it relates to nursing in the educational and practice domains. As caretakers of children, family and community, it was natural that women were the nurses, the caregivers, as human society evolved. Florence Nightingale is the most recognized name in the field of nursing. Applying theory to nursing practice has many advantages for the nurses and the profession. Nurses are actively involved in health care research, management, policy deliberations, and patient advocacy. Leininger has defined concepts as they apply to nursing. Her Environmental Theory changed the face of nursing to create sanitary conditions for patients to get care. With an increased number of researches it became obvious that the research without theory produced isolated information; however research and theory produced the nursing sciences. The History of Nursing. Nursing may be the oldest known profession, as some nurses were paid for their services from the beginning. Soon after we entered the twenty-first century sufficient evidence of theory-based practice existed to declare a theory utilization era ( Alligood, 2010 ). Nursing, profession that assumes responsibility for the continuous care of the sick, the injured, the disabled, and the dying.Nursing is also responsible for encouraging the health of individuals, families, and communities in medical and community settings. The development of the theory era was a natural outgrowth of the research era. This gives nurses the opportunity to organize principles that will help evaluate patient care and improve the nursing interventions based on the evaluation findings. Cognitivism is the other main learning theory and the one that most aligns with my nursing education. Florence Nightingale - Nursing Theorist. She was born in Sutton, Nebraska but received her diploma in nursing from St. Anthony's School of Nursing in Denver, Colorado. from Benedictine College in Atchison, Kansas, and in 1954, The development of the theory of transcultural nursing is based on the defining and redefining of concepts to give them a focus that emphasise the essence of care in its cultural context, with both the culture specific and … Evidence-based practice is foundational to undergraduate and graduate nursing education and is a way for the nursing discipline to minimize the theory to practice gap. , management, policy deliberations, and theories for theory-based nursing practice has many advantages the! 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